Step 1 – Have Faith

Christ Walking on Water, Henry Ossawa Tanner
Christ Walking on Water, Henry Ossawa Tanner

Immediately he made the disciples get into the boat and go on ahead to the other side, while he dismissed the crowds. And after he had dismissed the crowds, he went up the mountain by himself to pray. When evening came, he was there alone, but by this time the boat, battered by the waves, was far from the land, for the wind was against them. And early in the morning he came walking toward them on the sea. But when the disciples saw him walking on the sea, they were terrified, saying, “It is a ghost!” And they cried out in fear. But immediately Jesus spoke to them and said, “Take heart, it is I; do not be afraid.” Peter answered him, “Lord, if it is you, command me to come to you on the water.” He said, “Come.” So Peter got out of the boat, started walking on the water, and came toward Jesus. But when he noticed the strong wind, he became frightened, and beginning to sink, he cried out, “Lord, save me!” Jesus immediately reached out his hand and caught him, saying to him, “You of little faith, why did you doubt?” When they got into the boat, the wind ceased. And those in the boat worshiped him, saying, “Truly you are the Son of God.”
– Matthew 14:22-33

As Matthew tells it, the care and feeding of multitudes happens twice. Once, already in Matthew 14:13-21, and again, in Matthew 15:32-39. What takes place between the first time something happens and the second instance is key to how the instance is meant to be understood. Like explaining a magic trick or the solution to a math problem: first, I show you the trick, then I explain how the trick is done, then I show you the trick again. The object is for you to be able to do it yourself.

Between these we have three scenes:

  1. The crossing of the sea (in which our present story takes place)
  2. The events at Gennesaret. There are two of these:
    1. The controversy with the Pharisees and scribes (vv. 14:34 – 15:9)
    2. The teaching moment (vv. 15:10-20)
  3. The argument with the Canaanite woman (vv. 15:21-28)

Matthew is trying to teach us how the trick is done in three steps. Today the first step: you’ve got to cross the sea when the wind is against you.

It’s well established that crossing the sea is more than just crossing the sea. The sea represents the chaotic barrier between the current situation and its resolution, between where the people are and where they are “destined” to be. We have seen water used this way in countless other instances in the Bible itself:

  • The river flowing out of Eden;
  • The flood;
  • Moses in the bulrushes;
  • Crossing the Red Sea;
  • Crossing the Jordan into the Promised Land;
  • Elijah crossing the Jordan on the way to his ascension (2 Kings 2:6ff);
  • Jonah and the whale;
  • Jesus at his baptism

The list goes on, but the symbolic use of water in this way transcends Biblical literature: The Odyssey, Caesar crossing the Rubicon, Moby Dick.

So the disciples crossing the stormy sea is immediately to be understood as an epic crossing. And the first step toward the ability to care for and feed the multitudes turns out to be crossing the stormy sea of doubt. “You of little faith, why did you doubt?” Not “Why did you fear?”

The reason Peter was sinking is that “he noticed the strong wind and became frightened.” But the reason Peter got out of the boat was that he doubted who Jesus was: “If it is you, command me to come to you.” After it is all said and done, Jesus will ask Peter (Matthew 16:13ff), “Who do you say that I am?” It is a question of identity here, and while fear is to be expected, what Jesus demands is faith.

But now, we need to get straight what that faith is. It is emphatically not the kind of checking your brain at the door in order to believe the ridiculous. Faith is not about suspending the laws of physics to do parlor tricks. Remember, the point, the trick Matthew is trying to demonstrate, is not to show the disciples how to be able to walk on water; it’s to show the disciples how to be able to care for and feed the multitudes.

The goal, the instructions Jesus gave the disciples at the outset was to “go on ahead to the other side.” The goal of step 1 is to get across with the wind against you, to proceed in spite of fear, and when you see Jesus in the middle passage, to recognize him.

In other words, the challenge of this step has to do with getting through the internal resistance that arises when you undertake Kingdom projects. In their seeing Jesus as a ghost, the disciples are dealing with their self doubts, as surely as Hamlet’s self-doubt conjures up the ghost of his father, or Scrooge conjures up Marley. The doubt that must be overcome is not doubt about Jesus, but self-doubt. Once you can say who you are, then you will be able to say who Jesus is. (And this is exactly the opposite of the usual drivel about needing to figure out who Jesus is and then Jesus will tell you the rest.) Peter figures out who he is, and only then can he confess Jesus is the Messiah. To do the really great kinds of things Jesus wants his disciples to do, you need to know the power of faith rooted in being sure of your own identity. Without that, there’s no use in going on to steps 2 (resistance from people who are supposed to be for you) and step 3 (resistance from people who are supposed to be against you).

People will try anything to avoid confronting their own self-doubt. Sometimes, convincing ourselves that we can suspend the laws of nature and calling that faith is just easier. But Jesus wants us to know that the first step toward doing great Kingdom work is to learn to have faith – in yourself.

What distracts you from overcoming your internal resistance? What ghosts are you living in terror of? Where do you find Jesus in the middle passage?

The Care and Feeding of Multitudes

Feeding the multitudes
Giovanni Lanfranco, Miracle of the Bread and Fish, 1620-23

Now when Jesus heard this, he withdrew from there in a boat to a deserted place by himself. But when the crowds heard it, they followed him on foot from the towns. When he went ashore, he saw a great crowd; and he had compassion for them and cured their sick. When it was evening, the disciples came to him and said, “This is a deserted place, and the hour is now late; send the crowds away so that they may go into the villages and buy food for themselves.” Jesus said to them, “They need not go away; you give them something to eat.” They replied, “We have nothing here but five loaves and two fish.” And he said, “Bring them here to me.” Then he ordered the crowds to sit down on the grass. Taking the five loaves and the two fish, he looked up to heaven, and blessed and broke the loaves, and gave them to the disciples, and the disciples gave them to the crowds. And all ate and were filled; and they took up what was left over of the broken pieces, twelve baskets full. And those who ate were about five thousand men, besides women and children.
– Matthew 14:13-21

This scene depicts the beginning of a people’s revolution. If, among those crowds that day, there had been anyone from the press, they would have reported it as such.

First off, notice the connection to John the Baptist. Herod did. In Luke’s version (Luke 9:7ff), the lead-up to the story shows Herod wondering how the guy he executed for gathering crowds in the wilderness could still be out there. Matthew says Jesus goes to the wilderness (“a deserted place”) after being told the John the Baptist was dead. In the wilderness following the first meeting with John, Jesus had been tempted to turn rocks into bread for his own benefit. This time, following John’s scene, Jesus is back in the wilderness and he does make bread – for the benefit of the people.

So the first question about this scene has got to be (thanks to Simon Harak): Where did all the people come from? Think about it. How can there be 5000 men, plus women and children with the kind of leisure time to take a couple days off for a wilderness trek? And the answer is that they are unemployed. They are imperial flotsam. Then and now imperial economic systems need to maintain a certain rate of unemployment. Modern economists call it the NAIRU: the Non-Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment. And they say that ideally, depending on other economic factors, this ideal unemployment figure should usually be over four percent, and as high as ten or more percent. In parts of the world under occupation, the rate is much higher: it’s easier to control people if they haven’t got an excuse to go anywhere or the means to do anything meaningful. Currently, for example, in Palestine unemployment in the West Bank is 16.5% and 40% in Gaza. In Iraq, the unemployment rate in 2009 according to the CIA’s World Fact Book  was 15.3%. In Afghanistan, it’s 35%. But unemployment isn’t just an ideal fact in an imperial war economy. Currently the US employment rate as it tries to maintain two major wars and maintain footholds throughout the known world is (as of the end of June) 9.2%. These 5000 are the ones who have been intentionally left destitute.

Second, it stands to reason that in any crowd of unemployed people, there are bound to be a lot of them sick. They can’t afford adequate nutrition. They can’t afford going to the doctor. They can’t afford medicine. And, think about it, if you’re sick or if you have a sick kid, you’re main worry is going to be about getting better. So occupations go better when there are lots of sick people. People don’t have the time or energy to resist. So the crowds gather and the first thing Jesus does is “he cured their sick.” Remember what they were saying about Obama when he was talking about the possibility of free universal health care? What do you think the establishment was saying about Jesus?

Third, notice that the disciples want Jesus to “send the crowds away.” It’s not hard to see the disciples as a representation of the church. And, even in the first generation of Matthew’s community, there is a tension between Jesus and the church. Then and now, the first response of the church in dealing with marginalized, unemployed, sick, hungry people is to send them away, Jesus’ constant response is let them come, and you take care of them.

So Jesus instructs the disciples to have the people sit down on the grass – wait, what grass? This was supposed to be the desert. So now, the scene is not just a people’s revolution: it has now become a living instance of Psalm 23 – “He leadeth me in green pastures, and feedeth me beside the still waters” (how else is there grass-in desert, the wilderness, the valley of the shadow of death?).

All ate and were filled – not just ate, were filled. So, says Harak, “He’s healed all the people the empire wants sick, and he’s fed all the people the empire wants hungry. How long do you think they’re going to let him live?” In fact, where there were once a crowd of sick hungry no-accounts, there are now 5000 healthy, well-fed men here. It’s a number big enough to be of imperial significance, since a Roman legion was a group of between 5000 and 6000 healthy well-fed Roman citizens. Jesus is leading five thousand healthy, well-fed men who he’s symbolically named citizens of God’s kingdom: he has legion now. How long do you think they’re going to let him live?

Finally, about the twelve baskets left over. Twelve tribes of Israel: the leftovers, the broken pieces. Jesus collects the broken pieces to be the new Israel. Think about it. The care and feeding of multitudes is just that revolutionary.